# Cross, 1994

The method of least squares is a standard approach to the approximate solution of overdetermined systems, i.e., sets of equations in which there are more equations than unknowns. “Least squares” means that the overall solution minimizes the sum of the squares of the errors made in solving every single equation. The most important application is in data fitting. The best fit in the least-squares sense minimizes the sum of squared residuals, a residual being the difference between an observed value and the fitted value provided by a model. When the problem has substantial uncertainties in the independent variable the ‘x’ variable, then simple regression and least squares methods have problems; in such cases, the methodology required for fitting errors-in-variables models may be considered instead of that for least squares. Least squares problems fall into two categories: linear or ordinary least squares and non-linear least squares, depending on whether or not the residuals are linear in all unknowns. The linear least-squares problem occurs in statistical regression analysis; it has a closed-form solution. A closed-form solution or closed-form expression is any formula that can be evaluated in a finite number of standard operations. The non-linear problem has no closed-form solution and is usually solved by iterative refinement; at each iteration the system is approximated by a linear one, thus the core calculation is similar in both cases. The least-squares method was first described by Carl Friedrich Gauss around 1794. Least squares corresponds to the maximum likelihood criterion if the experimental errors have a normal distribution and can also be derived as a method of moments estimator.

This is a rare and amazing document by Prof. Paul Cross, with the first edition published in 1983. Starting from basics and assuming minimal background knowledge, it provides a thorough explanation of the least squares methodologies commonly used in surveying:

Advanced least squares applied to position-fixing – Paul A Cross 1994

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